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Debate Is Live And Clicking Controls The Internet

Debate Is Live And Clicking Controls The Internet

The battle for the future internet continues. This time, the focus is not on WikiLeaks or cybercrime treaties or privacy. Controls but rather on the International Telecommunications Union.

Under the World Conference on International Telecommunication (12 WCIT-12), the ITU is currently meeting at Dubai. Agenda, To discuss changes to the International Telecommunication Regulations. ITR, a 1988 treaty that was sign by 178 countries to establish the principles for international telecommunications operations.

Many media outlets have made a lot of the ITU meeting over the past weeks. They suggest that WCIT-12 is a concerted effort by the ITU. To take control of the internet and compromise freedom of speech. But is this really what’s happening? Is the ITU trying to put more restrictions on the internet? These questions can only be answer if we understand the ITU and it functions.

Regulator From The Past Internet

The ITU and ITR are both prehistoric in internet terms. The ITU was establish in 1865. It is responsible for international coordination of radio, telegraph and telephone systems.

In 1988, the ITR was sign in Melbourne to bring telecommunication regulation into the modern era. This was pre-internet. In 1993, web browsers made it searchable and available on the internet. The net was then open to commercial traffic in 1995.

The battles to control key elements of internet governance are almost as old as the internet itself. The US’s de facto control over the internet long resent by Europe and the BRIC countries (Brazil and India, China, India, and Russia). This influence is due to the US’s dominance of key net bodies like the.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN is the body that assigns domain names such www.google.com and approves new domains

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, (IANA), is the body that assigns IP addresses and manages. Data in root servers at heart of Domain Name System (DNS). This allows us to find each other on the internet.

ICANN, a California-incorporation non-profit organization, is govern by California law. This compromise was reach in 1998, when US-centric domain name. Allocation became the centre of a dispute between Europe & the US.

Many countries consider the ITU as a member in good standing of the UN Development. Group as a neutral candidate to regulate aspects of the internet.

The Fight Continues

The battle lines seem to been drawn once again with the revision of the ITR propose at WCIT-12. The US has mobilized private actors like Google to fight any attempt by the ITU to grab power. Vint Cerf is one of the early internet engineers and has made a series of shocking claims about the agenda for the WCIT.

These claims include the assertion that any ITU moves to expand its power and get involve in internet governance will endanger the net as we know. Despite the fact that much of the initial work was fund by the US Department of Defence, the net emerge as an open-ended platform for collaboration.

Internet communication was design to be decentralise. This is in contrast to traditional hub-and spoke telephony. The internet’s decentralise structure allow traffic to be route through alternative routes in the event of a network failure.

Decentralization means that there is no centralised control or chokepoint, which makes it difficult to manage the internet from a central location. This design beautiful because it doesn’t matter how intelligent or applications built, but the network dumb.

This is what has made the internet innovative and open. It also distinguishes it form close networks and proprietary intelligence that are host and control at the centre of the network.

Are You Charging For The Internet

As long as users have the appropriate connections and implement the appropriate protocols (such TCP/IP), they can join the internet. It doesn’t take much to sign up and it’s not necessary to pay anything. All you have to do is adhere to the appropriate standards.

This business model fundamentally different from the traditional telephony that regulate by ITU. This model ensures that telecommunications are tightly regulated, even down to international exchange charging mechanisms. The ITU recognizes the concerns of developing countries and has granted them permission to charge for internet content.

According to developing countries, they cannot afford the net infrastructure that will be used by rich (mostly US-based) content providers like YouTube and Facebook to disseminate their content.

This is why it is possible that WCIT-12 will examine potential charging models. This would explain the concern of Google and the US that the ITU will charge you the user to use the net. Google, for example, would be charged by the ITU. They would then have to consider how these costs might be passed on.

World’s Biggest Dark Web Platform Spreads Millions Of Sex Abuse

World’s Biggest Dark Web Platform Spreads Millions Of Sex Abuse

Online child sexual abuse web material remains rampant despite the efforts of big tech companies as well as governments to stop it. According to reports, it has become even more common during the COVID-19 epidemic.

These materials largely store on the anonymous internet part the darknet. Where they can be share with little to no fear of being prosecute. There are only a few websites that offer anonymous internet access at the moment, such as i2p and FreeNet.

Tor is the most complex and largest network. By encrypting users information and allowing them to be tamper with by internet service providers, the open-source browser and network grants anonymity.

Edward Snowden, an online privacy advocate, has praised the benefits of these platforms, claiming that they protect freedom of speech, freedom of thought, and civil rights. They also have a dark side.

Tor’s Perverted Underground World Web

The US Navy originally developed the Tor Project to protect online intelligence communications. It was release publicly in 2002. The Tor Project’s creators have admitted that there is a possibility of misuse. This service, along with technology such as untraceable crypto, can be use to hide criminals.

Tor is an overlay network which exists on top of the internet. It combines two technologies. The onion service software is the first. These websites are call onion service software and they are host on the Tor network. These sites require an onion address, and the servers physical locations kept secret from users.

Tor’s privacy-maximizing browser is the second. It allows users to surf the internet anonymously, hiding their location and identity. The Tor browser is require to access onion services. However, it can also browse the “surface”, internet.

It is easy to access the Tor network. Although search engines are limit (no Google), it is easy to find onion services. To name a few, Tor has a verified presence of the BBC, New York Times and ProPublica as well as Facebook, the CIA, Pornhub, Facebook, Twitter, and ProPublica.

The Hidden Wiki, which lists addresses on the network and allows users to find other (often illegal) service dictionaries, is one example of a service dictionary.

Abuse Porn And Child Sex Abuse Material Are Web Common

Although the Tor Project estimates that there are approximately 170,000 active addresses, it is not possible to determine the number of onion service providers on the Tor network. The network architecture allows partial monitoring of network traffic and provides a summary of services visited. Child sex abuse material is a common service.

One study found that only 2% (522,000) of the Tor network users used onion services each day out of the estimated 2.6million users who use it daily. This means that most users use the Tor network to protect their online privacy and not for anonymous onion services.

However, the same study revealed that around 80% of traffic to onion service sites was directed to illegal porn, child sex, and abuse images.

Another study found that 53.4% of 170,000 active onion domains had legal content. This suggests that 46.6% of services contained content that was illegal or in a gray area.

Scams are a large part of these services. However, there is also cryptocurrency services, drugs deals, malware and weapons, stolen credentials, counterfeit goods, child sex abuse material, and other dark parts of the internet.

Tor Network Can Sold For Profit

It is believed that only 7.5% of child sex abuse material found on the Tor network can be sold for profit. Most of the material is simply traded because most of the people involved aren’t in it to make a profit. Nevertheless, some services charge content fees.

Several prominent onion services that hosted child sex abuse material were shut down after extensive cross-jurisdictional enforcement operations. These included The Love Zone website (2014), PlaypEn 2015, and Child’s Play 2017.

The illegal website Boystown was shut down in May after a joint effort by German police and others, including the FBI and Europol.

However, one of the most popular child sex abuse forums online (not just Tor), has been evading law enforcement and activist takedown attempts for over a decade. It had 508,721 registered users as of last month. It has over one million images and videos of child abuse material and porn since 2013.

Early adopters of Tor’s anonymous discussion forums include the paedophile web (eroticisation pre-pubescent children), haebephile and ephebophile communities. Forum members share media, support one another and exchange tips to avoid being caught by police and scammers.

According to the 2019 Global Threat Assessment Report by We Protect Alliance, there were over 2.88 million users using ten forums that are dedicated to paraphilia and paedophilia via onion services.

Web Countermeasures

It is a difficult task for law enforcement to prosecute anyone who distributes or produces child sex abuse material online. This criminal activity often found in multiple jurisdictions making it difficult to detect and prosecute.

It is essential to use innovative online investigative methods and undercover operations. Targeted hacks, which allow law enforcement back-door access sites or forums that host child sex abuse material, are one example.

These operations made possible by cybercrime, transnational organise crime treaties that address child sex abuse material, and the trafficking women and children.

A focus on onion forums and directories may be helpful in harm reduction, given the volatile nature many onion services. We don’t know much about the influence these forums have on onion services hosting child sex abuse material.

Forum members can not only coordinate to avoid detection but also share web information about police activity and rate onion service vendors. They can also expose scams that target them.

Actionable Interventions

Monitoring forums by outsiders may lead to actionable interventions such as the successful profiling and arrest of active offenders. To promote self-regulation within these groups, some agencies have looked into using civil society experts, undercover police officers or civil society officials (such as the We Protect Global Alliance and ECPAT International).

Although there is not much research, it is possible for reformed offenders to offer advice to others. Sub-forums intend to educate, encourage treatment, and reduce harm. They focus on legal and medical issues related to child sex abuse material and how to control urges.

Other contraband services can also play a part. The onion services that deal with illicit drug, malware, and other trading often ban child sex abuse material.

Why is Tor allowing such abhorrent material, despite opposition from many sometimes even members of these groups? Most likely, Tor representatives have seen complaints and survivor reports regarding child sex abuse material.

Colonial Structure Starts With Looking To Media History

Colonial Structure Starts With Looking To Media History

Many media institutions serve the colonising empire in both how they were design and used historically. They were intend to promote the colonisers ideology in colonies.

Some print and electronic media are still at the service and support of imperialism and colonialism today. They are the legacy of colonialism, coloniality. These patterns of power persist long after the end formal colonialism. This has a negative effect. This reflects the progressive role of media institutions as places for sharing ideas and knowledge about modern society.

I am now asking: Can we decolonise the largest global communication platform today, the internet? The process is not linear. However, any attempt to understand the process must begin with how the internet spreads information and ideas about Africa.

To me, decolonisation is a shift away from viewing the world as a single universe to see it as a pluriverse, multiple worlds that exist side-by-side, inhabited by people who are actively seeking to free themselves from colonial power imbalances which have characterized the modern world. This is what the internet should look like: a communication tool that accurately represents these pluriverses.

Ancestors Of Media

It is important to understand the history of the internet and its predecessors – other institutions for communication when discussing decolonisation. My research interests lie in media studies and the history of media institutions. I am also interest in how decolonization might happen.

It is important to know the history of colonization before you can think about decolonisation. What is its current manifestation? What happens to its afterlife in the aftermath of settlement or direct extraction by colonial societies?

The internet should be understood as a space that reflects the continuity and discontinuities of colonial heritage. It can both reproduce and change the way people see the world.

Power Structures Media

Frantz Fanon, a philosopher, was one of those who thought about the colonial nature radio’s ancestor internet. He talked about the role that radio played in the larger colonial project in Algeria and the place Radio Algiers occupied. Radio Algiers was a French radio station that operated in Algeria for many decades. It was a reprint of the Paris-based French National Broadcasting System. Fanon wrote this 1959:

Radio was widely regard by European farmers as a link to civilized world and an effective tool of resistance against the corrosive influences of an inert indigenous society, a society without a future, devoid of values, and society without a backward or forward-looking society.

History has shown us that communication platforms can be influence by ideologies. We must be aware of the current role play by communication platforms.

The internet is today the default source of information, opinions, and knowledge for many societies. It’s also the default gatekeeper for knowledge in modern society.

The internet is literally a place where people can share ideas about themselves and others – especially about each other, according to the power structures of global order: global South against global North, colonial subject vs colonising subject.

One could be view as lacking morals, evil, savage, or uncivil by the ideas that spread via the internet. This is the true power of the internet as an information medium: It supports or disturbs knowledge about the globe.

Media Knowledge Systems

The internet can also be use to share knowledge. It creates and spreads ideas, which can be consciously or unconsciously shaped one’s perception of the world. Technology has not advanced significantly in the global South, and especially Africa. The continent has limited internet access, with its eastern and central regions being the most affected.

The internet has been a medium for the transmission of knowledge, but Africa has only played a small role. It therefore reasonable to suggest that the internet’s knowledge about Africa and Africans should be continually question. The question of whether the internet alters the narrative about Africa that has been establish by the West and colonial governments needs to be explored further. Or does it reinforce these narratives and understandings

The internet’s coloniality means that the African subject, which has a limited representation online, is still explained using an imperialistic knowledge outlook. Because of this, the continent and its people are largely unheard and unseen online. They are written and spoken about. Others on the internet can package their knowledge. This is all done by subjects who largely live in neo colonial or imperialistic geographies.

All of this ties together the narratives described by Edward Said in his observation:

The colonized people were characterized by poverty, dependence, underdevelopment, and various pathologies that lead to power and corruption. They also had notable achievements in war literacy, economic development, and other characteristics.

A Greater Understanding

To me, decolonizing the internet means recognising the past of colonialism and its presence even in systems and platforms that are most progressive poker pelangi.

It’s to grasp the coloniality and knowledge of today’s world, as well as to come to terms the hidden power matrix. Recognizing the uneven distribution of internet access and the implications of this for those who use the internet to find knowledge is essential. This is how the internet undermines the people the world has long considered invisible and unheard.